Sex and Rank. Modern Man’s Ancient Programs in Russian (Russian edition)
Vladimir Kazantsev who disclosed illegal purchases of eavesdropping devices from foreign firms was arrested in August , and released at the end of the year, however the case was not closed. On 9 January , journalist Vladimir Rakhmankov was sentenced for alleged defamation of the President in his article "Putin as phallic symbol of Russia" to fine of 20, roubles about USD.
Political dissidents from the former Soviet republics, such as authoritarian Tajikistan and Uzbekistan , are often arrested by the FSB and extradited to these countries for prosecution, despite the protests from international human rights organizations. Many people were also held in detention to prevent them from demonstrating during the G8 Summit in There has been a number of high-profile cases of human rights abuses connected to business in Russia.
Among other abuses, this most obviously involves abuse of article 17 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The WikiLeaks revelations indicated the low level of confidence other governments have in the Russian government on such issues. A prominent campaigner against such abuses is Yana Yakovleva, herself a victim who set up the group Business Solidarity in the aftermath of her ordeal.
Some Russian opposition lawmakers and investigative journalists are suspected to be assassinated while investigating corruption and alleged crimes conducted by state authorities or FSB : Sergei Yushenkov , Yuri Shchekochikhin , Alexander Litvinenko , Galina Starovoitova , Anna Politkovskaya , Paul Klebnikov. USA and UK intelligence services believe Russian government and secret servives are behind at least fourteen targeted killings on British soil.
Systematic illegal arrests and torture conducted by the armed forces under the command of Ramzan Kadyrov and Federal Ministry of Interior have also been reported. According to Memorial reports,   there is a system of "conveyor of violence" in Chechen Republic , as well as in neighbouring Ingushetiya. People are suspected in crimes connected with activity of separatists squads, are unlawfully detained by members of security agencies, and then disappear. Psychological pressure is also in use. A number of journalists were killed in Chechnya purportedly for reporting on the conflict.
As reported by the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe Thomas Hammarberg in , "prior military conflicts, recurrent terrorist attacks including suicide bombings , as well as wide-spread corruption and a climate of impunity have all plagued the region. According to the Human Rights Centre Memorial, the total number of alleged abductions in Chechnya was 42 during the entire year , whereas already in the first four months of there were 58 such cases.
Of these 58 persons, 45 had been released, 2 found dead, 4 were missing and 7 had been found in police detention units. In the first half of , 52 such complaints were made, 18 of which were granted. On 16 April the counter-terrorism operation CTO regime in Chechnya was lifted by the federal authorities. After that, the Chechen authorities bear primary responsibility for the fight against terrorism in the Republic. However, the lifting of the CTO regime has not been accompanied by a diminishment of activity of illegal armed groups in Chechnya.
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There are reports on practices of collective punishment of relatives of alleged terrorists or insurgents: punitive house-burning has continued to be among the tactics against families of alleged insurgents. Chechen authorities confirmed such incidents and pointed out that "such practices were difficult to prevent as they stemmed from prevalent customs of revenge", however, educational efforts are undertaken to prevent such incidents, with the active involvement of village elders and Muslim clerics, and compensation had been paid to many of the victims of punitive house burnings.
There are gay concentration camps in Chechnya where homosexuals are tortured and executed. Efforts to institutionalize official human rights bodies have been mixed.
In , human rights activist Sergei Kovalev resigned as chairman of the Presidential Human Rights Commission to protest the government's record, particularly the war in Chechnya. Parliament in passed a law establishing a "human rights ombudsman," a position that is provided for in Russia's constitution and is required of members of the Council of Europe, to which Russia was admitted in February A member of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation , Mironov resigned from both the Party and the Duma after the vote, citing the law's stipulation that the Ombudsman be nonpartisan.
Because of his party affiliation, and because Mironov had no evident expertise in the field of human rights, his appointment was widely criticized at the time by human rights activists. See also: Russian foreign agent law , Russian undesirable organizations law. The lower house of the Russian parliament passed a bill by requiring local branches of foreign non-governmental organizations NGOs to re-register as Russian organizations subject to Russian jurisdiction, and thus stricter financial and legal restrictions.
The bill gives Russian officials oversight of local finances and activities. The bill has been highly criticized by Human Rights Watch , Memorial organization , and the INDEM Foundation for its possible effects on international monitoring of the status of human rights in Russia. The groups would be allowed to resume work once their registrations are completed. The year saw the dissolution of several NGOs following their registration as foreign agents under the Russian foreign agent law and the shutdown of NGOs under the Russian undesirable organizations law.
The Constitution of Russian Federation provides for freedom of religion and the equality of all religions before the law as well as the separation of church and state. As Vladimir Lukin had stressed in his Ombudsman's report, "the Russian state has achieved significant progress in the observance of religious freedom and lawful activity of religious associations, overcoming a heritage of totalitarianism, domination of a single ideology and party dictatorship".
According to Alvaro Gil-Robles , relations between the representatives of the different religious communities are generally harmonious. Gil-Robles emphasized the amount of state support provided by both federal and regional authorities for the different religious communities, and stressed the example of the Republic of Tatarstan as "veritable cultural and religious melting pot".
Vladimir Lukin noted in , that citizens of Russia rarely experience violation of freedom of conscience guaranteed by the article 28 of the Constitution. The different problem arises with concern of citizens' right to association article 30 of the Constitution. The influx of missionaries over the past several years has led to pressure by groups in Russia, specifically nationalists and the Russian Orthodox Church , to limit the activities of these "nontraditional" religious groups.
The law is very complex, with many ambiguous and contradictory provisions. The law's most controversial provisions separates religious "groups" and "organizations" and introduces a year rule, which allows groups that have existed for 15 years or longer to obtain accredited status. According to Russian priest and dissident Gleb Yakunin , new religion law "heavily favors the Russian Orthodox Church at the expense of all other religions, including Judaism, Catholicism, and Protestantism.
The claim to guarantee "the exclusion of any legal, administrative and fiscal discrimination against so-called non-traditional confessions" was adopted by PACE in June Anna Politkovskaya described cases of prosecution and even murders of Muslims by Russia's law enforcement bodies at the North Caucasus.
More than four million employees tied to the military and security services were banned from traveling abroad under rules issued during Thirty were killed during President Boris Yeltsin 's reign, and the rest were killed under the president Vladimir Putin. Russian journalist Anna Politkovskaya , famous for her criticisms of Russia's actions in Chechnya , and the pro-Kremlin Chechya government, was assassinated in Moscow.
Opposition journalist Yevgenia Albats in interview with Eduard Steiner has claimed: "Today the directors of the television channels and the newspapers are invited every Thursday into the Kremlin office of the deputy head of administration, Vladislav Surkov to learn what news should be presented, and where. Journalists are bought with enormous salaries. According to Amnesty International during and after the Winter Olympics the Russian authorities adopted an increasingly attacking anti-Western and anti-Ukrainian rhetoric, which was widely echoed in the government-controlled mainstream media.
This was followed by Annexation of Crimea , War in Donbass , pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine , —15 Russian military intervention in Ukraine and International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis. Russian Constitution states of the Freedom of assembly that citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to gather peacefully, without weapons, and to hold meetings, rallies, demonstrations , marches and pickets.
According to Amnesty International report peaceful protests across Russia, including gatherings of small groups of people who presented no public threat or inconvenience, were routinely dispersed by police, often with excessive force. The day before the inauguration of President Putin, peaceful protesters against elections to Bolotnaya Square in Moscow were halted by police. Several leading political activists were named as witnesses in the case and had their homes searched in operations that were widely broadcast by state-controlled television channels.
PDF Sex and Rank. Modern Man’s Ancient Programs in Russian (Russian edition)
Over 6 and 7 May, hundreds of peaceful individuals were arrested across Moscow. Hundreds of peaceful protesters were arrested. According to a Russian law introduced in , a fine or detention of up to 15 days may be given for holding a demonstration without the permission of authorities and prison sentences of up to five years may be given for three breaches. Single-person pickets have resulted in fines and a three-year prison sentence.
Russian Federation is a multi-national state with over ethnic groups designated as nationalities, population of these groups varying enormously, from millions in the case of Russians and Tatars to under ten thousand in the case of Nenets and Samis. However, as Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe Gil-Robles noted in a report, whether or not the region is "national", all the citizens have equal rights and no one is privileged or discriminated against on account of their ethnic affiliation. As Gil-Robles noted, although co-operation and good relations are still generally the rule in most of regions, tensions do arise, whose origins vary.
Their sources include problems related to peoples that suffered Stalinist repressions, social and economic problems provoking tensions between different communities, and the situation in Chechnya and the associated terrorist attacks with resulting hostility towards people from the Caucasus and Central Asia, which takes the form of discrimination and overt racism towards the groups in question.
Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe  in May expressed concern that Russia still has not adopted comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation, and the existing anti-discrimination provisions are seldom used in spite of reported cases of discrimination. As Gil-Robles noted in , minorities are generally represented on local and regional authorities, and participate actively in public affairs.
Gil-Robles emphasized the degree of co-operation and understanding between the various nationalities living in the same area, as well as the role of regional and local authorities in ethnic dialogue and development. Although the Constitution of the Russian Federation recognises Russian as the official language, the individual republics may declare one or more official languages.
Most subjects have at least two — Russian and the language of the "eponymous" nationality. Moreover, new legislation allows usage of minority languages in federal radio and TV broadcasting. In , there were 6, schools which provided teaching in 38 minority languages. Over 75 minority languages were taught as a discipline in 10, schools.
Ministers of the Council of Europe have noted efforts to improve the supply of minority language textbooks and teachers, as well as greater availability of minority language teaching. However, as Ministers have noted, there remain shortcomings in the access to education of persons belonging to certain minorities.
There are more than 2, national minorities' public associations and national cultural autonomies, however the Committee of Ministers has noted that, in many regions, the amount of state support for the preservation and development of minority cultures is still inadequate. Russia is also home to a particular category of minority peoples, i. Alvaro Gil-Robles noted in that, like many European countries, the Russian Federation is also host to many foreigners who, when concentrated in a particular area, make up so-called new minorities, who experience troubles e.
Those who are registered encounter other integration problems because of language barriers. The Committee of Ministers noted in that, despite efforts to improve access to residency registration and citizenship for national minorities, those measures still have not regularised the situation of all concerned. In October the Russian Federation has introduced new legislation on legal rights of foreigners, designed to control immigration and clarify foreigners' rights.
Most of foreigners arriving in Russia are seeking jobs. In many cases they have no preliminary contracts or other agreements with a local employer. A typical problem is the illegal status of many foreigners i. Despite that, foreigner workers still benefit, what with seeming reluctance of regional authorities to solve the problem forms a sort of modus vivendi.
Illegal immigrants, even if they have spent several years in Russia may be arrested at any moment and placed in detention centres for illegal immigrants for further expulsion. As of , living conditions in detention centers are very bad, and expulsion process lacks of funding, what may extend detention of immigrants for months or even years.
There's a special case of former Soviet citizens currently Russian Federation nationals. Accordingly, Nationality Law recognised all former Soviet citizens permanently resident in the Russian Federation as Russian citizens. However, people born in Russia who weren't on the Russian territory when the law came into force, as well as some people born in the Soviet Union who lived in Russia but weren't formally domiciled there weren't granted Russian citizenship.
When at December 31, former Soviet passports became invalid, those people overnight become foreigners, although many of them considered Russia their home. The majority were deprived their de facto status of Russian Federation nationals, they lost their right to remain in Russian Federation, they were even deprived of retirement benefits and medical assistance.
Their morale has also been seriously affected since they feel rejected. Another special case are Meskhetian Turks. Victims of both Stalin deportation from South Georgia and pogroms in the Fergana valley in Uzbekistan, some of them were eventually dispersed in Russia.